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An Error in the Thinking of Twentieth-Century Chilean Baptists about the State

Consider the following affirmation—what I would argue is an incredible error—written in the Chilean Baptist monthly publication La Voz Bautista (The Baptist Voice) during World War II (September 1943, exact author unknown, page 13). (Note that all italics in the following quotations were added by the blog software and were not contained in the original Spanish, translated into English.)

Civil government affects all members of the community, and is established for the good of human society as a whole.

The author also added, based on Romans 13:1-7:

The civil government has been divinely approved to promote the interests of, and good order in, society.

Does this interpretation of the sacred text include states run by the likes of Hitler and Hirohito, as well as Mussolini and Stalin? Or does it apply only to republics or democratic countries over the last 250 years, not being valid for the autocracies, monarchies and dictatorships that have existed during thousands of years of history? Does it include states led by Nero, Domitian, Diocletian, who persecuted the early church? Or the famous Roman Republic that oppressed the Jews before Christ?

For those Chilean Baptists, and others that would follow, the answer was apparently, “yes!” For instance, H. Cecil McConnell stated fourteen months later in La Voz Bautista (November 1944, page 20), for Sunday School material regarding Romans 13:1-6:

[The Apostle Paul] wrote precisely during the reign of the infamous Nero. However, he asked Christians to faithfully comply with the laws of the empire. He knew that some laws were bad and should not be obeyed, Nevertheless, taking everything into account, Roman laws served its subjects for good. The government may not recognize God, but, in some sense, it is always God’s servant in maintaining order over a territory. Any government is better than no government.

It is simply mind-boggling to read such a ridiculous view that people preferred living with state-led mass-murder of millions, along with extensive destruction of property and churches, and imprisonment of pastors, rather than political anarchy. Yet this is the sort of incredible sense that comes from misinterpretation of the Holy Writ.

Nevertheless, not all Chilean Baptists were beleaguered by this errant view. In the same publication twenty months earlier (La Voz Bautista, March 1943, page 3) another unspecified author had a clearer idea of the bad effects of nefarious public policies—especially for the early church and the society that existed when the Apostle Paul wrote Romans 13:1-7:

Every thinking man must pay attention to the drive, courage and dynamism of the Apostles and Christians who formed the early church. Moreover, those elements also make us think of the rapid and victorious progress of the work of the Gospel during an era fraught with impossibilities: insurmountable prejudices, absurd but deeply rooted beliefs, despotism, and domination of the conscience by political and religious powers.[emphasis added]

So what happened? Having seen the similar horrors of Hitler’s Germany and the Japanese empire under Hirohito, Chilean Baptists wrote these first two citations above (from September 1943 and November 1944) in defiance of the historically Baptist libertarian and political understanding (i.e., Christian Worldview) of Pastor John Leland, an activist Christian who was the major proponent of adding the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. Both Leland’s contribution and that of earlier particular Baptists in England had been noted the previous year by C. Almonacid B in La Voz Bautista (June 1942, pages 7-8):

The motto of democracy is: Freedom, Equality and Fraternity. What a wonderful slogan this is! Totalitarianism’s [e.g., Draconian rule by Hitler, Hirohito and Stalin; and, by extension, Nero, Domitian and Diocletian] is: persecution, dictatorship, tyranny, supression and terror. In the United States, the Baptists made the First Amendment to the Constitution, which says: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” This amendment was adopted in 1789. The one who introduced it to President Washington on behalf of the Baptists was John Leland, a distinguished Baptist preacher. It was accepted, because the request was fair. He was not taken to a concentration camp or prison, as is the case in all totalitarian countries today, where preachers are persecuted even for their fundamental Christian principles. The Confession of Faith adopted by the English Baptists in 1644, says Dr. Vedder, contains the first publication of the doctrine of liberty of conscience in an official document representing a body of associated churches.

Indeed, earlier writers for La Voz Bautista were hardly oblivious to history and its political realities. But what ignorance and doctrinal shame was demonstrated just months later! I am a Baptist, but I hope that neither my brethren today nor I will repeat the error of the Chilean Baptists of September 1943 and November 1944. Accordingly, I write this article with the intention of providing the correct, biblical interpretation of Romans 13:1-7] and how we should comprehend our relationship with the state and politics. Furthermore, I hope that thinking people from other religions will consider it, too.

The idea of the state embodied in the first two citations is a resurrection or re-formulation of the ancient divine right of kings doctrine (image credit), which definitely corresponds to Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyterian and perhaps Pentecostal teaching. It belongs to any religion that wants to link state and church or that wants the state to impose godly morality on society, bring social justice, or to play a role in bringing the kingdom of God to earth (as theonomists do, or men like “Pastor” Soto in Chile do at present).

But in no way should a Baptist adhere to that doctrine. Baptists have always advocated the separation of the two things, since we have often been persecuted by the state. Indeed, many Baptist thinkers over the years have considered that the state is linked to Satan himself. For my part, as the Bible says, I believe that the state has been “appointed” by God (such as Cyrus, Hitler, Nero, et al.) and according to Revelation 13:1-9Psalm 2:2/Acts 4:26Revelation 19:19-21and others, is in fact linked to Satan.

Yet divine appointment does not in and of itself necessarily mean that the appointed thing is morally good. According to Isaiah 45:7, God brings adversity and controls evil. The words “good” and “evil” in Romans 13:3-4 may be defined according to the philosophy of the state, not according to the commandments or criteria of God. According to Romans 13:4, the state is the “servant” (in Greek: diakonos) of God in the same sense that Satan is. The state, in my view, is evil by nature whether it be run by the Left or the Right, although its worst manifestation is seen in revolutionary atheistic communism (from the extreme left). Consequently, the Left is worse than the Right in absolute terms. But the only biblical perspective is libertarian, something which has been historically Baptist.

I do not trust the state at all. It is an entity that generates corruption, wickedness and harm. The best thing one can hope to do by involving himself in politics is to reduce the damage that the state can cause his brethren or family, so that social conditions are set where “we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and reverence” (1 Timothy 2:2). The state will never have anything to do with God’s redemptive plan, except in its use of sanctifying His chosen ones “for good” (Romans 8:2813:4). Therefore, I must insist that the natures of state and church are different.

The acts of Jesus reveal that He was a libertarian or neoliberal; He never asked the state for help in His task or to impose morality or spread the kingdom of God. In fact, Satan offered him the kingdoms of this world that had been given to the devil (Luke 4:5-6). The state since then murdered John the Baptist, Jesus, eleven of the apostles and innumerable martyrs of history. This is the reality of things, and that expectation is taught in Revelation 12:13-17 and other parts of the final book of the Bible. Jesus and the apostles Paul and John taught us, too, that in this world we will have tribulation, suffer persecution and often be imprisoned (John 16:332 Timothy 3:12Revelation 2:10), mostly by Satan-led states.

I never put my trust in the state to improve the quality of life. Public policies provoke or implement satanic ideas in our society. Accordingly, in no way should we accept the errant doctrine of the Chilean Baptists of September 1943 and November 1944 about the role and nature of the state, an absolutely beastly and Satanic institution that was responsible for the death of approximately 350 million non-combatants in the Twentieth Century alone. Something so obvious should be clear to Baptists of any age, but especially during the Second World War in 1943 and 1944!

Note: For further reading on the matter, please see my books Christian Theology of Public Policy: Highlighting the American Experience (2006) and Bible and Government: Public Policy from a Christian Perspective (2003).

See this article on Steemit (with link to the Spanish version).

P.S. John Leland was not alone. La Voz Bautista (August 1946), page 12 mentions another prominent libertarian Baptist from New Jersey, John Hart, who was a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. “According to some historians, [John] Hart was not fond of politics, but he was an ardent patriot and was always willing to sacrifice everything for the sake of the sacred ideal of freedom. Indeed, from the time that libertarian propaganda took hold, he took an active part in it and, in October 1770, at approximately 55 years of age, he was included as a member of the Continental Congress as one of its most ardent defenders of American independence. In that organization, this honorable patrician, this consecrated Baptist, had the privilege of being united with Washington and the rest of that great body of men, as one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence of the United States.” Like John Leland, John Hart was not afraid to put 1 Corinthians 7:21-26 into practice.

Visit AllAboutChile.com for discussion and forums about the country. Non-wealthy immigrants to Chile should also create a portable income by signing up to be a 51Talk online English teacher. Read more details about the job in my previous post on the subject.

 Dr. Cobin’s updated and enlarged 2017 book, Life in Chile: A Former American’s Guide for Newcomers, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive treatise on Chilean life ever written, designed to help newcomers get settled in Chile. He covers almost every topic imaginable for immigrants. This knowledge is applied in his valet consulting service–Chile Consulting–where he guides expatriates through the process of finding a place to live and settle in Chile, helping them glide over the speed bumps that they would otherwise face in getting their visas, setting up businesses, buying real estate, investing in Chilean stocks or gold coins, etc. The cost is $129.

For a brief introduction consider Dr. Cobin’s abridged 2015 book (56 pages): Chile: A Primer for Expats ($19), offering highlights (somewhat outdated) found in the larger book. Buy Dr. Cobin’s Public Policy books at Amazon.com:

A Grateful Immigrant

Some people are surprised to learn that not only did I immigrate to Chile, but I also renounced my American citizenship after I became a Chilean. Indeed, I prefer freedom, and with all its faults Chile is an even freer place than the United States of America. I do not mean to say that the Chilean state is good or without its faults; not at all. I am a libertarian and according to my experience, the theoretical framework of my Worldview, and the empirical results that I have seen many scholars come up with: all States are vile.

In Chile there is no justice, there is crime; it is a lying, dishonest, deceitful and distrustful society with an odious bureaucracy that is coupled with annoying hassles and hurdles to get anything done. People tend to be overtly selfish, especially when driving or shopping. A large percentage of professionals and tradesmen seem to be incompetent. The Marxist minority is disgusting and irksome. These things are annoying. However, there are dozens of excellent reasons to be in Chile: beautiful landscapes, good medical care, low taxes, privatization of pensions and former state-run enterprises, affordable housing (in Chilean First World places), the best anti-seismic construction in the world, good food, a large number of libertarians, little political correctness, scant radical ecology or radical feminist policies, a strong family focus, strong opposition to abortion, etc.

I left the U.S.A. and I eliminated my citizenship because I did not want to be linked with that state and I adopted the considerably less malignant Chilean one. I am certainly more optimistic about the future of Chile than that of North America. Chile is my homeland now and I am working to make it even more libertarian.

What do I think about the old country? Not much; I do not feel any moral obligation to liberate the U.S.A. from its evil, nor raise funds from here to free its serfs from their regulatory, tax and politcally-correct slavery. Am I a degenerate or indolent for not caring about fixing the big mess up yonder? I do not think so. Instead, I recommend that North Americans (and Europeans) come to Chile.

For me, life is clearly a struggle between good and evil, in general trying to help others be a little freer, even though my main desire is for Chile to move towards greater liberty. Such freedom is a strong magnet that will automatically attract oppressed immigrants—similar to Hong Kong in the Twentieth Century. My idea is not original, since during the Nineteenth Century and the first decades of the Twentieth, Valparaíso, Chile fulfilled that magnetic function. I want Valparaíso to regain that virtue during the Twenty-First Century so that, once again, the world’s oppressed, poor, ignorant and persecuted will reach its shores alon with the rest of the country.

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I am a grateful immigrant because Chile welcomed me on March of 1996 when I was thrity-three years old—without a job, with less than USD$10,000 in savings, with five children under eight years old (and another one to be born that July), and without being able to speak much Spanish. We all had a temporary visas when we arrived, obtained before boarding the plane, but nothing else of significant earthly value besides courage, resourcefulness, dedication and diligence.

In addition, I have been rather serious about promoting Chile to others. Since 2006, I have publicized and “sold” the country to many Americans (and several Europeans), with many of them having come down to stay (a few in conditions similar mine in 1996). Now, most of these folks speak, more or less, in Spanish. Many of them work here and are applying for Chilean nationality. I am happy for them and I hope they serve as great blessings for Chile.

With the help of some fabulous individuals (i.e., Chicago boys or, in one case, a UCLA boy) who trusted me and hired me even though I spoke Spanish poorly, boosted my career growth and later facilitated the development of some projects in Chile. I would be remiss not to mention and thank, in a special way, Álvaro Vial, who even signed up to be my personal guarantor, allowing to lease my first home in 1997, as well as Harald Beyer, Cristian Laurroulet, and later (in 2008) Francisco Labbé, among others.

In mentioning these fine men, I am not implying that I got work on account of favoritism. For instance, to get my first full time job in Chile I had to pass a “test” before being hired by the Finis Terra University. It consisted in me teaching a semester-long course (in English) about free market and public policy topics, for authorities and professors of the university. Thus, I earned the job based on my merits. I am infinitely grateful for the opportunity they gave me. Also, nobody claimed that I was going to take away the work of a Chilean that might have otherwise gotten my university post. Its authorities, with the exception of Adelio Pipino, were pro-immigrant.

Now, I want to help other immigrants as others have helped me—especially considering the great influx of immigrants that has arrived since 2015. Accordingly, I am especially happy to see Baptists (of which I am one) working with Haitian immigrants to learn Spanish and the Bible. I am libertarian in word and deed, and there is no man more naturally libertarian than a Baptist.

Unlike other Chileans who disdain immigrants, how could I be anti-immigrant after having such a good reception in Chile? I have been settled in the country for the better part of twenty-two years, working, paying taxes, participating in politics and active in church, writing 1,505 letters to the editor, hundreds of blog entries pertaining to Chile, and have been the subject of many press interviews. My language skills still leave something tp be desired. Yet, I was relatively comfortable writing this article in Spanish (having had people who helped me correct mistakes), before putting it into English. Another issue: note that my second daughter (Rachel) was born here, in Quilpué, on July 7, 1996 and is a Chilean citizen, too. I have another son who opted for nationality as well. For so many reasons, I have always felt welcome to Chile.

Álvaro Vial and Héctor Hevia (among others) told me that when they went to study at the universities of Chicago and Western Michigan, respectively, they were surprised by how well the gringos received them, willing to help and show kindness to an unknown foreigner. I must agree that the generosity and volunteerism of Americans is unparalleled in the world. (It is, after all, a country made up of once persecuted, oppressed and poor ignorant immigrants or their descendants, right?)

Upon seeing me in 1996, they told me that they were goig to take the opportunity to return the favor of what they had received in America by being generous and helpful to me, without expecting anything in return. At other times, different men helped me, too, especially in 2008 and 2015-2016. It is worth mentioning that Pablo Baraona, Hermógenes Pérez de Arce and super-libertario Álvaro Bardón nearly became my fans by helping me become yet another emblematic (or enigmatic?) Chilean libertarian who believed in the economic policies they envoked under Pinochet, and who showed his preference to live in these furthest confines of the world instead of the “fabulous” United States. I’m grateful for them too.

Blurb in <i>La Estrella</i> (The Star) of Valparaíso in January 1996 alerting people to the fact that the "<i>gringo loco</i>" was going to arrive.jpg

They put this notice for me at La Estrella in Valparaíso (January 1996). Mrs. Marta Ramírez (another fabulous person) answered and leased us a country house in Lo Hidalgo, between Limache and Villa Alemana. I am grateful again because he was interested in my case. From there, I launched my life in Chile. It has not been easy, but I have shown that you can achieve success as an immigrant in Chile.

Having considered the main provisions of the bill championed by President Piñera (April 2018) to modify Chilean immigration legislation, I think it will cause more distortions than solutions. Would it not be better to privatize the border? In what sense am I different from the Haitian immigrant so frequently despised today? My skin is white, my eyes are greenish, and my university and postgraduate education (coupled with my professional career) is far better than theirs. Are those the reasons why I was preferred? The differences I have with immigrants from Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela are relatively minor compared to the massive ones I have with Haitians—except that those folks already speak Spanish as their first language, unlike my unpolished drivel—wherein they beat me hands-down. All of that evidence leads me to believe that there is an immigrant prototype that the Chilean government under Piñera likes.

At any rate, I have empathy for the immigrants who have been coming to Chile since 2015. I hope that Chile is beneficial to them, and that they will consider becoming part of our pro-life libertarian political party (and perhaps ponder becoming Baptists, too!). Normally those who have fled oppression and social malice, having been persecuted by the Left, come to their new homeland willing to oppose the slavish, often violent and bloodthristy Left that beleaguered it. Just how beneficial would attracting so many new adherents that detest the Left be for the libertarian Right?

This article was published (in Spanish) by the popular, left-wing Chilean magazine The Clinic, on April 13, 2018.

Haz click aquí para ver la versión en español de este artículo.

John Cobin, Ph.D. Twitter

Visit AllAboutChile.com for discussion and forums about the country. Non-wealthy immigrants to Chile should also create a portable income by signing up to be a 51Talk online English teacher. Read more details about the job in my previous post on the subject.

 Dr. Cobin’s updated and enlarged 2017 book, Life in Chile: A Former American’s Guide for Newcomers, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive treatise on Chilean life ever written, designed to help newcomers get settled in Chile. He covers almost every topic imaginable for immigrants. This knowledge is applied in his valet consulting service–Chile Consulting–where he guides expatriates through the process of finding a place to live and settle in Chile, helping them glide over the speed bumps that they would otherwise face in getting their visas, setting up businesses, buying real estate, investing in Chilean stocks or gold coins, etc. The cost is $129.

For a brief introduction consider Dr. Cobin’s abridged 2015 book (56 pages): Chile: A Primer for Expats ($19), offering highlights (somewhat outdated) found in the larger book. Buy Dr. Cobin’s Public Policy books at Amazon.com:

New Pro-Life Libertarian Party in Chile / Nuevo Partido Político Libertario Chileno a Favor de la Vida

Chile has many classical liberals or libertarians that are pro-life who have now formed their own political party: the Independence Party. Chile tiene muchos liberales clásicos o libertarios que están a favor de la vida, y ya han formado su propio partido político: el Partido Independencia.

This article is written in both English and Spanish. The idea is (1) to inform English speakers of an important new political movement in Chile and also (2) to help attract people in Chile to participate. If you are a citizen or permanent resident of Chile, and you agree with the platform (whether or not you speak Spanish), please sign the Party’s online form to join with us and show your support!

Español abajo.

English

Declaration of Principles of the Independence Party

Preliminary Statement: In accordance with Article 5 of Law No. 18,603, the Independence Party expresses its commitment to the strengthening of democracy and respect, the guarantee and promotion of human rights enshrined in the Constitution, in ratified international treaties and laws in force in Chile, and in life generally.

1- On the human being and the individual:

The person is an end in itself and not a means. As a rational being (when we say rational being, we do not say that its actions are entirely dedicated mainly to its own survival) he exists for his own effort and courage in cooperation with others, and not to be used by others. Being endowed with a volitional consciousness (free will), social relations must be based on free collaboration that is voluntary between subjects to be considered fair, while rejecting forced impositions by the state.

2- On the Chilean nation:

The Independence Party advocates a civic nationalism. We consider Chile a Western and Hispanic American nation, with major cultural influences coming from several human groups: the Indians, the conquerors of the Spanish empire, many other European countries (especially Germany, Britain, Italy, Croatia, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, Austria, Portugal), the United States, and a large Orthodox Christian remnant from Syria, Lebanon, Palestine—that part of the former Ottoman Empire that is now called Israel. Chile is a country of immigrants, but it is also a country of indigenous people, former Spanish conquerors and other settlers, but now its culture and common traits are easily identifiable as the small differences seen across our long geography.

The preservation and improvement of our nation is not a racial or biological problem, neither military nor expansionist. Civic nationalism seeks conservation and CULTURAL improvement of what we understand today by “Chile”. We reject isolationism or racism in every way.

  1. On citizenship and the state:

Citizens must be free and equal in dignity and rights. We live in a mixed society, with a state that exploits the private productive relationships of people through high taxes and regulation. Tax measures and administrative measures are due to adequate levels of effectiveness and efficiency. We stand for privatization and the use of market-based regulation wherever possible to reduce taxes and government regulation.

4- On property as a natural right:

Life, liberty and property are natural rights that are antecedent to the State. The defense of property is the basis of a well-formed civil society, allowing personal development and the improvement of individual initiative and private enterprise.

A free individual must take responsibility for the positive and negative consequences of his actions. The fruits of his work, i.e., his property, must be protected from the consequences of the acts of others, and thus protected by justice, peace and social harmony.

5- On justice:

We understand by justice the recognition of the fact that people and nature cannot be changed or interpreted differently and according to the discretion of others, much less by means of public policy. It means respect for the truth in an incorruptible way, given that all human beings must be judged by what is and treated accordingly with equality.

6- On protective and subsidiary status:

The state or, better said, the government, must defend the property rights of the people, which are the expression of human nature, savings, capital formation and the preservation of life and happiness, must promote voluntary private solidarity and ultimately fulfill the subsidiary role focused on the population most in need to guarantee the minimum benefits for the healthy coexistence. In doing so, government should rely on private, charitable, philanthropic, mutual and market-based institutions as much as possible.

7- On the law and legislation:

The law is a declaration of the sovereign will of the individuals that make up the national community, spontaneously generated and antecedent to the state, either in the general sphere of the country or in each territorial unit with it scorresponding jurisdictions. Legislation is the artifically imposed rules or codes of conduct created by legislative bodies of the government or state.

Notwithstanding the above, Chile is a Republic where natural rights are fundamental and protected, namely: the rights to life, freedom and the pursuit of happiness. None of these rights may be restricted by majority vote or decrees by the executive or judicial power.

8- On national sovereignty:

The sovereignty of Chile lies in its people and is applied throughout its territory: Accordingly, it is important to review and submit to the democratic control of international treaties, pacts and agreements to which Chile subscribes.

9- On decentralization and cantonization:

In order to increase the degrees of freedom and responsibility of individuals, we believe that the delegation of decision-making power to the smallest organizational and territorial unit is important. We believe that the vast majority of administrative, valuation and tax matters correspond to the competencies of local communities. That is why we propose the cantonization as administrative structure of each territory, accomplishing as much decentralization as possible to promote efficiency and effectiveness. The current provinces will become autonomous political bodies to make decisions on issues of economic, social and regulatory relevance. We propose with this a confederated and cantonal Chile.

10- On trust in the family and community:

Given that human beings are eminently social and empathic beings, we believe in the family and the community (e.g., religious groups, neighborhood associations, sports club, and other institutions), as instances of participation and solidarity in which individuals may find support, help and mutually beneficial cooperation. We believe that the weight of “social action” falls on them instead of the bureaucratic and impersonal state.

We also believe that this makes the individual responsible for the positive or negative results derived from his actions. In terms of thinking, individuals must be free to believe and choose as they deem best, even if considered absurd or ridiculous to others, noting only that one may deny reality but not the consequences of reality. Man must be allowed to err, so long as he does not force his will upon others.

11- On free association, the right to discern and self-defense:

People should be free to associate with those they deem best according to their own criteria. No one can be forced to belong to an association. The members of each intermediate body (e.g., churches, companies, families, groups of friends, foundations, clubs, etc.) have the right to express their power to discern when accepting a new member. We oppose any legislation that attempts to prevent the exercise of this right unless it is a matter of national security. We oppose state intervention or involvement in marriage, the foundational unit of family and society, which should be left to private institutions or associations to define, determine and regulate. All people have a right to defend themselves, by force of arms if necessary, against any other human being or autocratic state that seeks to deprive them of their natural rights by force.

12- On the environment and privatization of externalities:

In order to fully develop human nature, we believe that it is necessary for people to live in a clean and healthy environment. Without prejudice to the foregoing, we understand that individuals have different preferences and visions regarding the type of environment in which they want to live. Recognizing the legitimacy of these differences, we believe that the free market is the mechanism to resolve them, through an adequate definition of property rights and the prices of externalities. We believe that public policies tend to make environmental problems permanent and only slightly improved, being subjected to the perverse incentives of interest groups, and that market-based solutions to environmental, population and natural resource problems are in every way to be preferred.

13- On the right to life and the free movement of peoples related to immigration:

We believe that every human being, whose personality or personhood cannot be infringed on or separated from him by public policy, has an inalienable right to life, from the moment of conception to death. Euthanasia of the elderly or infirm, or voluntary abortion, are acts of aggression against a person that must not be allowed, excepting only self-defense abortion in cases where the position of the fetus in the fallopian tube will with certainty kill both the mother and unborn child. All persons have the right to travel and should be welcomed into Chile as a means to improve our country’s population and development. However, it may be necessary to rely on market-based regulation (e.g., privatized borders, largely-privatized civil registry services and border security guards, private medical teams to isolate infectious diseases) to define the quantity and placement of immigrants.

14- On free-market policy alternatives and the use of force internationally:

Finding and providing solutions to policy problems are an essential feature of any political party. Thus, we propose the use of market incentives, market-based regulation, private initiative and historically favored rules like allodial property rights to encourage the development of remote regions, improve the quality of life, foment business and economic growth, protect residents from infectious diseases, and promote peace. National defense is important and Chile has a right to defend its citizens and their property against aggressors, but we oppose the opportunistic, expansive use of militarism or warfare to subdue other peoples. We all oppose all international entanglements with multinational social or political bodies such as the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Bank of International Settlements, the International Court of Justice, and so forth. We oppose, too, the imposition of political correctness doctrines on individuals by the state, as well as state criminalization, regulation and other rules regarding what individuals choose to smoke, inhale, ingest, whether in the form of a drug, alcohol or food.

15- On the Party’s historical position:

The price of freedom is eternal vigilance and Chile has not yet achieved full independence from state encroachment. The mission of the Independence Party is the unification of the Chileans in a collective process that allows the development of each individual in the country. It represents a rupture with world and national bureaucracies, at the same time being a renewed means to keep Chile open to the rest of the world. Peace with other nations includes trade and free migration that is not contradictory to our independence and sovereignty. As Chile has a strong history of receiving other peoples peacefully, we encourage migration processes that allow for healthy coexistence through market-based regulation, that ensure avoiding cultural and uncivilized clashes. From 1840 to 1930, Valparaíso was one of the economically freest places in the world, yielding a prosperity built on diversity of immigrants and free flows of capital and goods. We aim to restore this golden age of Chile, coupled with a furtherance of the social and political freedoms.

Note for the English version onlyValparaíso even enjoyed free banking from 1862 to 1879. To a lesser extent, similar freedom movements were observed in south-central Chile by European migrations (from 1860 to 1910) to the 9th (especially), 10th, and 14th regions—largely comprised of people fleeing religious (anti-Evangelical) or early-Marxist persecutions in their home countries. Punta Arenas, Santiago, Iquique and Antofagasta also flourished with the influx of immigrants, many of whom became fabulously wealthy. Such freedom is cherished by liberty-lovers today worldwide and showcased by other libertarian parties and libertarian think tanks around the world.

Only in the English version (proposed addition):
16- On financial regulation and banking: As an essential element of free enterprise, the banking, insurance and financial sectors must be freed from ties to the state, leaving their formation and regulation to market-based institutions. We support free banking and competing banknote issue, gold-based banking, and unregulated crytpo-currency activities. Financial accounts and transactions should be completely private and untaxed, both for Chileans and residents from other countries living in Chile.

We face an opportunity never before seen, where a group of Chileans is resolved, and thus decided to take the reins of history, to take Chile down the path of greater individual freedom and free markets.

Long live Chile!

Declaración de principios del Partido Independencia:

Declaración Preliminar: En conformidad con el Articulo 5 de la Ley Número 18.603, el Partido Independencia expresa su compromiso con el fortalecimiento de la democracia y el respeto, la garantía y la promoción de los derechos humanos asegurados en la Constitución, en los tratados internacionales ratificados y vigentes en Chile, y en las leyes.

1- Sobre el ser humano e individuo:

La persona es un fin en sí mismo y no un medio. Como un ente racional (al decir ente racional no decimos que sus actos enteramente lo sean si no que es su principal herramienta de supervivencia) existe por su propio esfuerzo y valentía en cooperación con otros y no para ser utilizado por otros. Siendo dotado de una conciencia volitiva (libre albedrío) las relaciones sociales deben basarse en la colaboración libre y voluntaria entre sujetos para ser consideradas justas, rechazando de esta manera cualquier tipo de imposición forzosa por parte del Estado.

2- De la nación chilena:

El Partido independencia propugna un nacionalismo cívico. Consideramos a Chile una nación occidental e hispanoamericana, cuyas principales influencias culturales provienen de varios grupos humanos: los indígenas, los conquistadores del imperio español, los colonos europeos (especialmente Alemania, Reino Unido, Italia, Croacia, Francia, Suiza, Bélgica y Holanda), Estados Unidos y del imperio turco-otomano provenientes de lo que hoy es Israel o Palestina y Siria. Chile no es fundamentalmente un país de inmigrantes (como lo podría ser Estados Unidos por ejemplo), es un país de indígenas, conquistadores y colonos, por lo que su cultura y rasgos comunes son fácilmente identificables pese a las pequeñas diferencias dadas por la larga geografía que nos aleja.

La preservación y mejora de nuestra nación no es un asunto racial ni biológico, ni militar ni expansionista. El nacionalismo cívico busca la conservación y el desarrollo de lo que hoy entendemos por “Chile”. Rechazamos de plano cualquier forma de racismo o nacionalismo étnico.

3- Ciudadanía y Estado:

Los ciudadanos deben ser libres e iguales en dignidad y derechos. Vivimos en una sociedad mixta, con un Estado que explota las relaciones productivas privadas de las personas a través de altos impuestos. Es por esto que deben reducirse las tasas impositivas y los órganos administrativos deben acercarse a niveles óptimos de eficacia y eficiencia con tal de servir a las personas de la mejor manera posible en materias que no pueden ser resueltas por el mercado.

4- La propiedad privada como Derecho Natural:

La vida, la libertad y la propiedad privada son derechos naturales anteriores al Estado. La defensa de la propiedad privada es la base de una sociedad civil bien conformada, permite la creación de riqueza, el desarrollo personal y potencia la iniciativa individual.

Un individuo libre debe hacerse responsable de las consecuencias positivas y negativas de sus actos, incluyendo de los frutos de su trabajo.

5- Justicia:

Entendemos que la justicia implica que las personas y la naturaleza no pueden ser cambiadas o interpretadas de manera diferente y según el arbitrio de algunos. La justicia significa el respeto por la verdad de una manera incorruptible, siendo el ser humano juzgado por lo que es y tratado en consecuencia.

6- Estado protector y subsidiario:

El Estado debe propender a defender los derechos de propiedad de las personas, que son una expresión de la naturaleza humana, debe promover la solidaridad privada voluntaria y soluciones de mercado y en última instancia cumplir un rol subsidiario focalizado en la población más necesitada garantizando las prestaciones mínimas.

7- Sobre la ley:

La ley es una declaración de la voluntad soberana de los individuos que conforman la comunidad nacional, ya sea ésta en el ámbito general del país o en cada unidad territorial y de la correspondiente jurisdicción.

Sin perjuicio de lo anterior, Chile es una República, y por ello los derechos naturales y fundamentales tales como los derechos a la vida, a la libertad y a la búsqueda de la felicidad no pueden ser coartados por leyes de la mayoría.

8- De la soberanía nacional:

La soberanía de Chile radica en su gente y se aplica en su territorio, debido a lo anterior nos parece importante revisar y someter al control democrático los tratados internacionales, pactos y acuerdos que Chile suscribe.

9- Descentralización y cantonización:

Con el fin de aumentar los grados de libertad y de responsabilidad de los individuos, nos parece importante la delegación de poder de decisión a la unidad organizacional y territorial más pequeña; creemos que la gran mayoría de los asuntos administrativos, valóricos y tributarios corresponden a competencias propias de la comunidad local, es por esto que proponemos la cantonización como estructura administrativa de cada territorio. Las actuales provincias pasarán a ser organismos políticos con autonomía para tomar decisiones en temas de relevancia económica, social y regulatoria. Proponemos con esto un Chile confederado y cantonal.

10- La confianza en la familia y la comunidad:

Siendo el ser humano un animal eminentemente social y empático, creemos en la familia y en la comunidad (grupo religioso, barrio, club deportivo, etc…) como instancias de participación y solidaridad en los que los individuos pueden encontrar contención, ayuda y apoyo. Creemos que recae en ellos el peso de la “acción social” en lugar del Estado burocrático e impersonal.

Creemos además que esto responsabiliza al individuo de los posibles resultados positivos y negativos de sus acciones. En términos de pensamiento, los individuos deben tener la libertad de creer y elegir lo que ellos consideren mejor, aunque esto sea considerado absurdo o ridículo para otros, considerando que uno puede negar la realidad pero no las consecuencias de la realidad. El ser humano debe estar permitido de errar siempre y cuando no imponga su voluntad sobre otros.

11- De la libre asociación y el derecho a discernir:

Las personas deben ser libres de asociarse con quienes estimen mejor según su propio criterio. Nadie puede ser obligado, forzado o inducido a pertenecer a una asociación. Los miembros de cada cuerpo intermedio (empresas, familias, grupos de amigos, fundaciones, clubes, etc…) tienen derecho a expresar su potestad de discernir al momento de aceptar a un nuevo miembro. Nos oponemos a cualquier legislación que intente impedir el ejercicio de este derecho a menos que se trate de un asunto de seguridad nacional. Nos oponemos a la intervención del Estado en el matrimonio, la unidad fundacional de la familia y de la sociedad, cuya determinación y regulación debería dejarse en manos de instituciones privadas o asociaciones.

Todos los seres humanos tienen el derecho a defenderse, por las armas si es necesario, contra otros seres humanos o contra un Estado autocrático que busque quitarle sus derechos naturales por la fuerza.

12- Medio ambiente y privatización de externalidades:

Con el fin de desarrollar plenamente la naturaleza humana, consideramos que es necesario que las personas puedan vivir en un ambiente limpio y sano Sin perjuicio de lo anterior entendemos que los individuos tienen distintas preferencias y visiones respecto del tipo de ambiente en el que quieren vivir. Reconociendo la legitimidad de esas diferencias creemos que el mecanismo para resolverlas es el mercado mediante una adecuada definición de los derechos de propiedad y de los precios de las externalidades.

Creemos que las políticas medioambientales del Estado son soluciones marginales que tienden a hacer que estos problemas medioambientales sean permanentes ya que generan incentivos perversos en ciertos grupos de intereses. Por lo mismo, creemos en soluciones de mercado a problemas, medioambientales y de asignación de recursos naturales.

13- Sobre el derecho a la vida y la libertad de movimiento con respecto a la inmigración

Creemos que todo ser humano, cuya personalidad o persona no puede ser transgredida o separada por políticas públicas, tiene derecho a la vida, desde el momento de la concepción a la muerte. La eutanasia de los mayores y enfermos o el aborto voluntario, son actos de agresión contra personas y no pueden ser permitidos salvo en casos de defensa propia cuando la posición del feto en las trompas de falopa provocará con seguridad la muerte de la madre y del niño que está por nacer.

Creemos en el derecho que de las personas a migrar y creemos que estas deberían ser bienvenidas a Chile como una forma de mejorar la cultura y el desarrollo del país. Sin embargo, para definir la cantidad y la distribución de los inmigrantes, promovemos soluciones de mercado tales como la privatización de las fronteras, la privatización del registro civil y de los guardias y personal médico en las fronteras y siempre en conformidad con la decisión soberana del pueblo chileno.

14- Sobre el libre mercado y el uso internacional de la fuerza

La búsqueda y la promoción de soluciones a problemas políticos es la función principal de cualquier partido político.

Respecto del desarrollo de regiones remotas, de su calidad de vida, de su economía y de su seguridad, proponemos el uso de incentivos de mercado, de la iniciativa privada y de los derechos alodiales.

La defensa nacional es importante y Chile tiene el derecho de defender a sus ciudadanos y su propiedad contra agresores. Sin embargo nos oponemos al uso oportunista y expansionista de la fuerza militar para someter a otras personas.

Nos oponemos al involucramiento con entidades políticas o sociales internacionales que limiten la soberanía de Chile, tales como las Organización de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo Monetario Internacional y la Corte Internacional de Justicia entre otros.

Nos oponemos a la imposición de doctrinas de lo políticamente correcto, que no son otra cosa que formas de autocensura.

Nos oponemos a la criminalización y la regulación de substancias que los individuos elijan fumar, aspirar o ingerir. Sin embargo entendemos las repercusiones sociales que esto conlleva y por lo tanto entregamos parte importante de la toma de estas decisiones a las comunidades expresadas en sus cantones.

15- Posición Histórica:

El precio de la libertad es la eterna vigilancia y Chile no ha logrado una independencia plena del Estado y de organismos y entidades foráneas. La misión del Partido Independencia es la unificación de los chilenos en un proceso colectivo que permita el desarrollo de cada una de las individualidades que lo componen.

Representa una ruptura contra las burocracias mundiales y nacionales, al mismo tiempo que una fuerza renovadora y abierta al mundo. La paz con otras naciones incluye el comercio libre y la inmigración lo cual no debe estar en contradicción con nuestra independencia y soberanía.

Chile tiene una larga tradición de recibir a otros pueblos de forma pacífica. Creemos y promovemos procesos migratorios regulados que permitan una coexistencia sana mediante soluciones de mercado que eviten choques culturales y civilizatorios.

Entre 1840 y 1930, Valparaíso fue uno de los lugares económicamente más libres del mundo y su prosperidad se construyó sobre la inmigración y la libre circulación de bienes y capitales. Buscamos restaurar la era dorada de Chile y avanzar las libertades sociales y políticas queridas por amantes de la libertad en todo el mundo.

Estamos ante una oportunidad nunca antes vista, donde un grupo de chilenos resueltos ha decidido tomar las riendas de la historia para llevar a Chile por la senda de la libertad.

¡Viva Chile!

Este artículo está escrito en inglés y español. La idea es (1) informar a los hablantes de inglés de un importante movimiento político nuevo en Chile y también (2) ayudar a atraer a personas en Chile para que participen. Si usted es ciudadano o residente permanente de Chile, y está de acuerdo con la plataforma del Partido Independencia, firme el formulario en línea del Partido para unirse a nosotros y mostrar su apoyo.

John Cobin, Ph.D. Twitter

Visit AllAboutChile.com for discussion and forums about the country. Non-wealthy immigrants to Chile should also create a portable income by signing up to be a 51Talk online English teacher. Read more details about the job in my previous post on the subject.

 Dr. Cobin’s updated and enlarged 2017 book, Life in Chile: A Former American’s Guide for Newcomers, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive treatise on Chilean life ever written, designed to help newcomers get settled in Chile. He covers almost every topic imaginable for immigrants. This knowledge is applied in his valet consulting service–Chile Consulting–where he guides expatriates through the process of finding a place to live and settle in Chile, helping them glide over the speed bumps that they would otherwise face in getting their visas, setting up businesses, buying real estate, investing in Chilean stocks or gold coins, etc. The cost is $129.

For a brief introduction consider Dr. Cobin’s abridged 2015 book (56 pages): Chile: A Primer for Expats ($19), offering highlights (somewhat outdated) found in the larger book. Buy Dr. Cobin’s Public Policy books at Amazon.com: